Comoros: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: Union of the Comoros
conventional short form: Comoros
local long form: Udzima wa Komori (Comorian); Union des Comores (French); Jumhuriyat al Qamar al Muttahidah (Arabic)
local short form: Komori (Comorian); Comores (French); Juzur al Qamar (Arabic)
etymology: name derives from the Arabic designation "Juzur al Qamar" meaning "Islands of the Moon"
Government typefederal presidential republic
CapitalMoroni Moroni
geographic coordinates: 11 42 S, 43 14 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions3 islands and 4 municipalities*; Anjouan (Ndzuwani), Domoni*, Fomboni*, Grande Comore (N'gazidja), Moheli (Mwali), Moroni*, Moutsamoudou*
Independence6 July 1975 (from France)
National holidayIndependence Day, 6 July (1975)
Constitutionprevious 1996; latest ratified 23 December 2001; amended 2009, 2014 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of Islamic religious law, the French civil code of 1975, and customary law
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Comoros
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Azail ASSOUMANI (since 26 May 2016); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Azail ASSOUMANI (since 26 May 2016)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: the Union presidency rotates among the 3 islands; president directly elected by simple majority popular vote in 2 rounds for a single nonrenewable 5-year term (in the first round or primary, 3 candidates with the highest vote count by voters on the island concerned compete in the second round; second round winner determined by simple majority vote by voters on all 3 islands; election last held on 21 February 2016 and second round held 10 April 2016 (next to be held in 2021); note - in addition to the Union president, each island elects its own president
election results: Azail ASSOUMANI elected president in the second round of voting by a plurality; percent of vote in first round - Mohamed Ali SOILIHI 17.6%, Mouigni BARAKA 15.1%, Azali ASSOUMANI 15%, Fahmi Said IBRAHIM 14.5%; percent of vote in second round - Azail ASSOUMANI 41%, Mohamed Ali SOILIHI 39.9%; Mouigni BARAKA 19.1%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Assembly of the Union (33 seats; 24 members elected by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed and 9 members indirectly selected by island assemblies; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 25 January and 22 February 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UPDC 8, PJ 7, RDC 2, CRC 2, RADHI 1, PEC 1, independents 3; note - in addition 9 seats will be filled by nominations from the 3 island assemblies
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 7 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 8 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges - 2 selected by the president of the Union, 2 by the Assembly of the Union, and 1 each by the 3 island councils; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court members appointed - 1 by the president, 1 each by the 3 vice presidents, 1 by the Assembly, and 1 each by the island executives; all members serve 6-year renewable terms
subordinate courts: Court of Appeals (in Moroni); Tribunal de premiere instance; island village (community) courts; religious courts
Political parties and leadersConvention for the Renewal of the Comoros or CRC (AZALI Assoumani)
Democratic Rally of the Comoros or RDC (Mouigni BARAKA)
Juwa Party or PJ (Ahmed Abdallah SAMBI)
Party for the Comorian Agreement (Partie Pour l'Entente Commorienne) or PEC (Fahmi Said IBRAHIM)
Rally for an Alternative of Harmonious and Integrated Development or RADHI (Abdou SOEFO)
Rally with a Development Intiiative for Enlightened Youth or RIDJA (Said Larifou)
Union for the Development of the Comoros or UPDC (Mohamed HALIFA)
Political pressure groups and leadersFederation Comorienne des Consomateurs or FCC (Mohamed Said Abdallah MCHANGANA)
Mouvement des Entreprises comorienne or MODEC (Faharate HOUSSEIN)
Union des Chambres de Commerce et de l'Industrie et de l'Agriculture or UCCIA (Fahmy THABIT)
Confederation des Travailleurs Comoriens or CTCother: environmentalists
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AMF, AOSIS, AU, CAEU (candidates), COMESA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Soilihi Mohamed SOILIHI (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: Mission to the US, 866 United Nations Plaza, Suite 418, New York, NY 10017
telephone: (1) (212) 750-1637
FAX: (1) (212) 750-1657
Diplomatic representation from the USthe US does not have an embassy in Comoros; the US Ambassador to Madagascar is accredited to Comoros
Flag descriptionfour equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), white, red, and blue, with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist; centered within the triangle is a white crescent with the convex side facing the hoist and four white, five-pointed stars placed vertically in a line between the points of the crescent; the horizontal bands and the four stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago - Mwali, N'gazidja, Ndzuwani, and Mahore (Mayotte - department of France, but claimed by Comoros)
note: the crescent, stars, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam
National symbol(s)four stars and crescent; national colors: green, white
National anthemname: "Udzima wa ya Masiwa" (The Union of the Great Islands)
lyrics/music: Said Hachim SIDI ABDEREMANE/Said Hachim SIDI ABDEREMANE and Kamildine ABDALLAH

note: adopted 1978