Germany: Culture#

World Heritage#

Nobel Prize Winners (103)#

Here persons are counted for the country they born in or if their affiliation is with this country.
Kurt AlderChemistry1950"for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis"
Robert J. AumannEconomics2005"for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis"
J. Georg BednorzPhysics1987"for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"
Friedrich BergiusChemistry1931"in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"
Gerd BinnigPhysics1986"for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"
Heinrich BöllLiterature1972"for his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature"
Carl BoschChemistry1931"in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"
Walther BothePhysics1954"for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"
Willy BrandtPeace1971
Karl Ferdinand BraunPhysics1909"in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"
Eduard BuchnerChemistry1907"for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation"
Adolf Friedrich Johann ButenandtChemistry1939"for his work on sex hormones"
Ernst Boris ChainMedicine1945"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"
Paul J. CrutzenChemistry1995"for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"
Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus DebyeChemistry1936"for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases"
Hans G. DehmeltPhysics1989"for the development of the ion trap technique"
Johann DeisenhoferChemistry1988"for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"
Max DelbrückMedicine1969"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"
Otto Paul Hermann DielsChemistry1950"for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis"
Gerhard DomagkMedicine1939"for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil"
Paul EhrlichMedicine1908"in recognition of their work on immunity"
Manfred EigenChemistry1967"for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"
Albert EinsteinPhysics1921"for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"
Gerhard ErtlChemistry2007"for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces"
Rudolf Christoph EuckenLiterature1908"in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life"
Hermann Emil FischerChemistry1902"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses"
Hans FischerChemistry1930"for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin"
Ernst Otto FischerChemistry1973"for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds"
Werner ForssmannMedicine1956"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"
James FranckPhysics1925"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"
Joachim FrankChemistry2017"for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution"
Reinhard GenzelPhysics2020"for the discovery of a supermassive compact object at the centre of our galaxy"
Peter GrünbergPhysics2007"for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance"
Fritz HaberChemistry1918"for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"
Otto HahnChemistry1944"for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei"
Theodor W. HänschPhysics2005"for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"
Klaus HasselmannPhysics2021"for the physical modelling of Earth's climate, quantifying variability and reliably predicting global warming."
Gerhart Johann Robert HauptmannLiterature1912"primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and outstanding production in the realm of dramatic art"
Harald zur HausenMedicine2008"for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer"
Werner Karl HeisenbergPhysics1932"for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"
Stefan W. HellChemistry2014"for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy"
Gustav Ludwig HertzPhysics1925"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"
Gerhard HerzbergChemistry1971"for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals"
Hermann HesseLiterature1946"for his inspired writings which, while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style"
Paul Johann Ludwig HeyseLiterature1910"as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories"
Robert HuberChemistry1988"for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"
J. Hans D. JensenPhysics1963"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"
Sir Bernard KatzMedicine1970"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"
Wolfgang KetterlePhysics2001"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"
Henry A. KissingerPeace1973
Robert KochMedicine1905"for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis"
Georges J.F. KöhlerMedicine1984"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"
Albrecht KosselMedicine1910"in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances"
Hans Adolf KrebsMedicine1953"for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"
Herbert KroemerPhysics2000"for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics"
Richard KuhnChemistry1938"for his work on carotenoids and vitamins"
Polykarp KuschPhysics1955"for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"
Otto LoewiMedicine1936"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"
Feodor LynenMedicine1964"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"
Thomas MannLiterature1929"principally for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature"
Otto Fritz MeyerhofMedicine1922"for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"
Hartmut MichelChemistry1988"for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"
Christian Matthias Theodor MommsenLiterature1902"the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A history of Rome"
Rudolf Ludwig MössbauerPhysics1961"for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name"
Erwin NeherMedicine1991"for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"
Walther Hermann NernstChemistry1920"in recognition of his work in thermochemistry"
Christiane Nüsslein-VolhardMedicine1995"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"
Wilhelm OstwaldChemistry1909"in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction"
Wolfgang PaulPhysics1989"for the development of the ion trap technique"
Arno Allan PenziasPhysics1978"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig PlanckPhysics1918"in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta"
John C. PolanyiChemistry1986"for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"
Ludwig QuiddePeace1927
Wilhelm Conrad RöntgenPhysics1901"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him"
Ernst RuskaPhysics1986"for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope"
Nelly SachsLiterature1966"for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength"
Bert SakmannMedicine1991"for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"
Erwin SchrödingerPhysics1933"for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"
Reinhard SeltenEconomics1994"for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"
Hans SpemannMedicine1935"for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development"
Johannes StarkPhysics1919"for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields"
Hermann StaudingerChemistry1953"for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry"
Jack SteinbergerPhysics1988"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"
Horst L. StörmerPhysics1998"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"
Gustav StresemannPeace1926
Thomas C. SüdhofMedicine2013"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"
Jacobus Henricus van 't HoffChemistry1901"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions"
Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von BaeyerChemistry1905"in recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"
Emil Adolf von BehringMedicine1901"for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths"
Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-ChelpinChemistry1929"for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"
Karl von FrischMedicine1973"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"
Klaus von KlitzingPhysics1985"for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect"
Max von LauePhysics1914"for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals"
Philipp Eduard Anton von LenardPhysics1905"for his work on cathode rays"
Carl von OssietzkyPeace1935
Otto WallachChemistry1910"in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds"
Otto Heinrich WarburgMedicine1931"for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"
Rainer WeissPhysics2017"for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves"
Heinrich Otto WielandChemistry1927"for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances"
Wilhelm WienPhysics1911"for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat"
Richard Martin WillstätterChemistry1915"for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"
Adolf Otto Reinhold WindausChemistry1928"for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins"
Georg WittigChemistry1979"for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"
Karl ZieglerChemistry1963"for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers"
Richard Adolf ZsigmondyChemistry1925"for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry"

National Parks#