Honduras: People & Society#

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Honduran(s)
adjective: Honduran
Ethnic groupsmestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 90%, Amerindian 7%, black 2%, white 1%
LanguagesSpanish (official), Amerindian dialects
ReligionsRoman Catholic 97%, Protestant 3%
Demographic profileHonduras is one of the poorest countries in Latin America and has the world's highest murder rate. More than half of the population lives in poverty and per capita income is one of the lowest in the region. Poverty rates are higher among rural and indigenous people and in the south, west, and along the eastern border than in the north and central areas where most of Honduras' industries and infrastructure are concentrated. The increased productivity needed to break Honduras' persistent high poverty rate depends, in part, on further improvements in educational attainment. Although primary-school enrollment is near 100%, educational quality is poor, the drop-out rate and grade repetition remain high, and teacher and school accountability is low. Honduras' population growth rate has slowed since the 1990s, but it remains high at nearly 2% annually because the birth rate averages approximately three children per woman and more among rural, indigenous, and poor women. Consequently, Honduras' young adult population - ages 15 to 29 - is projected to continue growing rapidly for the next three decades and then stabilize or slowly shrink. Population growth and limited job prospects outside of agriculture will continue to drive emigration. Remittances represent about a fifth of GDP.
Age structure0-14 years: 33.55% (male 1,524,195/female 1,459,679)
15-24 years: 21.09% (male 956,315/female 918,925)
25-54 years: 36.19% (male 1,627,072/female 1,591,025)
55-64 years: 4.99% (male 207,821/female 235,776)
65 years and over: 4.19% (male 161,734/female 210,717) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 57.8%
youth dependency ratio: 50.1%
elderly dependency ratio: 7.7%
potential support ratio: 13.1% (2015 est.)
Median agetotal: 22.6 years
male: 22.3 years
female: 23 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.64% (2016 est.)
Birth rate22.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate5.2 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Population distributionmost residents live in the mountainous western half of the country; unlike other Central American nations, Honduras is the only one with an urban population that is distributed between two large centers - the capital of Tegucigalpa and the city of San Pedro Sula; the Rio Ulua valley in the north is the only densely populated lowland area
Urbanizationurban population: 54.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.14% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - populationTEGUCIGALPA (capital) 1.123 million; San Pedro Sula 852,000 (2015)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth20.4
note: median age a first birth among women 25-29 (2011-12 est.)
Maternal mortality rate129 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 17.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 20 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 15.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 71.1 years
male: 69.5 years
female: 72.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.72 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate73.2% (2011/12)
Health expenditures8.7% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.37 physicians/1,000 population (2005)
Hospital bed density0.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 97.4% of population
rural: 83.8% of population
total: 91.2% of population
urban: 2.6% of population
rural: 16.2% of population
total: 8.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 86.7% of population
rural: 77.7% of population
total: 82.6% of population
urban: 13.3% of population
rural: 22.3% of population
total: 17.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.37% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS20,000 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths1,000 (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate16.3% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight7.1% (2012)
Education expenditures5.9% of GDP (2013)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.5%
male: 88.4%
female: 88.6% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 12 years (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 280,809
percentage: 16% (2002 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 8%
male: 5.5%
female: 13.8% (2011 est.)