Haiti: People & Society#

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Haitian(s)
adjective: Haitian
Ethnic groupsblack 95%, mulatto and white 5%
LanguagesFrench (official), Creole (official)
ReligionsRoman Catholic (official) 54.7%, Protestant 28.5% (Baptist 15.4%, Pentecostal 7.9%, Adventist 3%, Methodist 1.5%, other 0.7%), voodoo (official) 2.1%, other 4.6%, none 10.2%
note: many Haitians practice elements of voodoo in addition to another religion, most often Roman Catholicism; voodoo was recognized as an official religion in 2003
Age structure0-14 years: 33.39% (male 1,744,599/female 1,756,155)
15-24 years: 21.35% (male 1,120,532/female 1,118,278)
25-54 years: 36.24% (male 1,885,478/female 1,914,078)
55-64 years: 4.94% (male 246,453/female 271,455)
65 years and over: 4.09% (male 189,098/female 239,674) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 62.3%
youth dependency ratio: 54.8%
elderly dependency ratio: 7.5%
potential support ratio: 13.3% (2015 est.)
Median agetotal: 22.6 years
male: 22.4 years
female: 22.8 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.71% (2016 est.)
Birth rate23.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate7.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Population distributionfairly even distribution; largest concentrations located near coastal areas
Urbanizationurban population: 58.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.78% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - populationPORT-AU-PRINCE (capital) 2.44 million (2015)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.01 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth22.7
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)
Maternal mortality rate359 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 48.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 54.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 41.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 63.8 years
male: 61.2 years
female: 66.4 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.79 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate34.5% (2012)
Health expenditures7.6% of GDP (2014)
Hospital bed density1.3 beds/1,000 population (2007)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 64.9% of population
rural: 47.6% of population
total: 57.7% of population
urban: 35.1% of population
rural: 52.4% of population
total: 42.3% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 33.6% of population
rural: 19.2% of population
total: 27.6% of population
urban: 66.4% of population
rural: 80.8% of population
total: 72.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate1.71% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS133,500 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths8,000 (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate10.7% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight11.6% (2012)
Education expendituresNA
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 60.7%
male: 64.3%
female: 57.3% (2015 est.)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 2,587,205
percentage: 21% (2006 est.)