Guinea-Bissau: People & Society#

Population1,759,159 (July 2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Bissau-Guinean(s)
adjective: Bissau-Guinean
Ethnic groupsFulani 28.5%, Balanta 22.5%, Mandinga 14.7%, Papel 9.1%, Manjaco 8.3%, Beafada 3.5%, Mancanha 3.1%, Bijago 2.1%, Felupe 1.7%, Mansoanca 1.4%, Balanta Mane 1%, other 1.8%, none 2.2% (2008 est.)
LanguagesCrioulo 90.4%, Portuguese 27.1% (official), French 5.1%, English 2.9%, other 2.4%
note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2008 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 45.1%, Christian 22.1%, animist 14.9%, none 2%, unspecified 15.9% (2008 est.)
Demographic profileGuinea-Bissau’s young and growing population is sustained by high fertility; approximately 60% of the population is under the age of 25. Its large reproductive-age population and total fertility rate of more than 4 children per woman offsets the country’s high infant and maternal mortality rates. The latter is among the world’s highest because of the prevalence of early childbearing, a lack of birth spacing, the high percentage of births outside of health care facilities, and a shortage of medicines and supplies. Guinea-Bissau’s history of political instability, a civil war, and several coups (the latest in 2012) have resulted in a fragile state with a weak economy, high unemployment, rampant corruption, widespread poverty, and thriving drug and child trafficking. With the country lacking educational infrastructure, school funding and materials, and qualified teachers, and with the cultural emphasis placed on religious education, parents frequently send boys to study in residential Koranic schools (daaras) in Senegal and The Gambia. They often are extremely deprived and are forced into street begging or agricultural work by marabouts (Muslim religious teachers), who enrich themselves at the expense of the children. Boys who leave their marabouts often end up on the streets of Dakar or other large Senegalese towns and are vulnerable to even worse abuse. Some young men lacking in education and job prospects become involved in the flourishing international drug trade. Local drug use and associated violent crime are growing.
Age structure0-14 years: 39.28% (male 344,976/female 346,102)
15-24 years: 20.17% (male 176,050/female 178,842)
25-54 years: 32.53% (male 285,258/female 286,955)
55-64 years: 4.62% (male 31,030/female 50,215)
65 years and over: 3.4% (male 22,121/female 37,610) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 78.4%
youth dependency ratio: 72.8%
elderly dependency ratio: 5.7%
potential support ratio: 17.7% (2015 est.)
Median agetotal: 20 years
male: 19.5 years
female: 20.5 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.88% (2016 est.)
Birth rate32.9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate14.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanizationurban population: 49.3% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.13% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - populationBISSAU (capital) 492,000 (2015)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.62 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Maternal mortality rate549 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 87.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 96.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 77.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 50.6 years
male: 48.6 years
female: 52.7 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate4.16 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate14.2% (2010)
Health expenditures5.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.1 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density1 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 98.8% of population
rural: 60.3% of population
total: 79.3% of population
urban: 1.2% of population
rural: 39.7% of population
total: 20.7% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 33.5% of population
rural: 8.5% of population
total: 20.8% of population
urban: 66.5% of population
rural: 91.5% of population
total: 79.2% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate3.69% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS42,000 (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths1,900 (2014 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate6.3% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight17% (2014)
Education expenditures2.2% of GDP (2013)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 59.9%
male: 71.8%
female: 48.3% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 9 years
male: NA
female: NA (2006)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 226,316
percentage: 57% (2010 est.)