Djibouti: People & Society#

Population846,687 (July 2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Djiboutian(s)
adjective: Djiboutian
Ethnic groupsSomali 60%, Afar 35%, other 5% (includes French, Arab, Ethiopian, and Italian)
LanguagesFrench (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar
ReligionsMuslim 94%, Christian 6%
Demographic profileDjibouti is a poor, predominantly urban country, characterized by high rates of illiteracy, unemployment, and childhood malnutrition. More than 75% of the population lives in cities and towns (predominantly in the capital, Djibouti). The rural population subsists primarily on nomadic herding. Prone to droughts and floods, the country has few natural resources and must import more than 80% of its food from neighboring countries or Europe. Health care, particularly outside the capital, is limited by poor infrastructure, shortages of equipment and supplies, and a lack of qualified personnel. More than a third of health care recipients are migrants because the services are still better than those available in their neighboring home countries. The nearly universal practice of female genital cutting reflects Djibouti’s lack of gender equality and is a major contributor to obstetrical complications and its high rates of maternal and infant mortality. A 1995 law prohibiting the practice has never been enforced. Because of its political stability and its strategic location at the confluence of East Africa and the Gulf States along the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, Djibouti is a key transit point for migrants and asylum seekers heading for the Gulf States and beyond. Each year some hundred thousand people, mainly Ethiopians and some Somalis, journey through Djibouti, usually to the port of Obock, to attempt a dangerous sea crossing to Yemen. However, with the escalation of the ongoing Yemen conflict, Yemenis began fleeing to Djibouti in March 2015, with more than 35,000 arriving by April 2016. Most Yemenis remain unregistered and head for Djibouti City rather than seeking asylum at one of Djibouti’s three spartan refugee camps. Djibouti has been hosting refugees and asylum seekers, predominantly Somalis and lesser numbers of Ethiopians and Eritreans, at camps for 20 years, despite lacking potable water, food shortages, and unemployment.
Age structure0-14 years: 31.71% (male 134,604/female 133,840)
15-24 years: 21.54% (male 85,805/female 96,587)
25-54 years: 38.37% (male 134,945/female 189,930)
55-64 years: 4.7% (male 18,257/female 21,538)
65 years and over: 3.68% (male 13,992/female 17,189) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 58.5%
youth dependency ratio: 51.9%
elderly dependency ratio: 6.6%
potential support ratio: 15.1% (2015 est.)
Median agetotal: 23.5 years
male: 21.8 years
female: 24.9 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.18% (2016 est.)
Birth rate23.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate7.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate5.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanizationurban population: 77.3% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - populationDJIBOUTI (capital) 529,000 (2015)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.71 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.84 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Maternal mortality rate229 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 47.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 54.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 40.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 63.2 years
male: 60.7 years
female: 65.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.35 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate19% (2012)
Health expenditures10.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.23 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
Hospital bed density1.4 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 97.4% of population
rural: 64.7% of population
total: 90% of population
urban: 2.6% of population
rural: 35.3% of population
total: 10% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 59.8% of population
rural: 5.1% of population
total: 47.4% of population
urban: 40.2% of population
rural: 94.9% of population
total: 52.6% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate1.55% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS9,400 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths600 (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate8.5% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight29.8% (2012)
Education expenditures4.5% of GDP (2010)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 6 years
male: 7 years
female: 6 years (2011)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 13,176
percentage: 8% (2006 est.)