Chad: People & Society#

Population11,852,462 (July 2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Chadian(s)
adjective: Chadian
Ethnic groupsSara (Ngambaye/Sara/Madjingaye/Mbaye) 25.9%, Arab 12.6%, Kanembu/Bornu/Buduma 8.3%, Wadai/Maba/Masalit/Mimi 7%, Gorane 6.8%, Masa/Musseye/Musgum 4.7%, Bulala/Medogo/Kuka 3.6%, Bidiyo/Migaama/Kenga/Dangleat 3.6%, Marba/Lele/Mesme 2.9%, Dadjo/Kibet/Muro 2.5%, Mundang 2.5%, Gabri/Kabalaye/Nanchere/Somrai 2.4%, Zaghawa/Bideyat/Kobe 2.3%, Fulani/Fulbe/Bodore 2%, Tupuri/Kera 2%, Tama/Assongori/Mararit 1.6%, Baguirmi/Barma 1.3%, Karo/Zime/Peve 1.3%, Mesmedje/Massalat/Kadjakse 1%, other Chadian ethnicities 2.5%, Chadians of foreign ethnicities 0.6%, foreign nationals 2.5% (Sudanese 2%) (2009 est.)
LanguagesFrench (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects
ReligionsMuslim 58.4%, Catholic 18.5%, Protestant 16.1%, animist 4%, other 0.5%, none 2.4% (2009 est.)
Demographic profileDespite the start of oil production in 2003, 40% of Chad’s population lives below the poverty line. The population will continue to grow rapidly because of the country’s very high fertility rate and large youth cohort – more than 65% of the populace is under the age of 25 – although the mortality rate is high and life expectancy is low. Chad has the world’s third highest maternal mortality rate. Among the primary risk factors are poverty, anemia, rural habitation, high fertility, poor education, and a lack of access to family planning and obstetric care. Impoverished, uneducated adolescents living in rural areas are most affected. To improve women’s reproductive health and reduce fertility, Chad will need to increase women’s educational attainment, job participation, and knowledge of and access to family planning. Only about a quarter of women are literate, less than 5% use contraceptives, and more than 40% undergo genital cutting. More than 300,000 refugees from Sudan and almost 70,000 from the Central African Republic strain Chad’s limited resources and create tensions in host communities. Thousands of new refugees fled to Chad in 2013 to escape worsening violence in the Darfur region of Sudan. The large refugee populations are hesitant to return to their home countries because of continued instability. Chad was relatively stable in 2012 in comparison to other states in the region, but past fighting between government forces and opposition groups and inter-communal violence have left nearly 60,000 of its citizens displaced in the eastern part of the country.
Age structure0-14 years: 43.63% (male 2,622,700/female 2,549,035)
15-24 years: 21.18% (male 1,225,731/female 1,285,150)
25-54 years: 28.31% (male 1,525,208/female 1,830,530)
55-64 years: 3.87% (male 202,044/female 256,936)
65 years and over: 3% (male 146,957/female 208,171) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 100.7%
youth dependency ratio: 95.8%
elderly dependency ratio: 4.9%
potential support ratio: 20.3% (2015 est.)
Median agetotal: 17.6 years
male: 16.6 years
female: 18.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.88% (2016 est.)
Birth rate36.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate14 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-3.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Population distributionthe population is unevenly distributed due to contrasts in climate and physical geography; the highest density is found in the southwest, particularly around Lake Chad and points south; the dry Saharan zone to the north is the least densely populated
Urbanizationurban population: 22.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.42% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - populationN'DJAMENA (capital) 1.26 million (2015)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.83 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.79 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth17.9
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014/15 est.)
Maternal mortality rate856 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 87 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 92.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 81.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 50.2 years
male: 49 years
female: 51.5 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate4.45 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate4.8% (2010)
Health expenditures3.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.04 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 71.8% of population
rural: 44.8% of population
total: 50.8% of population
urban: 28.2% of population
rural: 55.2% of population
total: 49.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 31.4% of population
rural: 6.5% of population
total: 12.1% of population
urban: 68.6% of population
rural: 93.5% of population
total: 87.9% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate2.04% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS165,600 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths8,500 (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate6.6% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight28.8% (2015)
Education expenditures2.9% of GDP (2013)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
total population: 40.2%
male: 48.5%
female: 31.9% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 7 years
male: 9 years
female: 6 years (2011)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 1,475,960
percentage: 48% (2010 est.)