Burundi: People & Society#

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Burundian(s)
adjective: Burundian
Ethnic groupsHutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000
LanguagesKirundi 29.7% (official), Kirundi and other language 9.1%, French (official) and French and other language 0.3%, Swahili and Swahili and other language 0.2% (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area), English and English and other language 0.06%, more than 2 languages 3.7%, unspecified 56.9% (2008 est.)
ReligionsCatholic 62.1%, Protestant 23.9% (includes Adventist 2.3% and other Protestant 21.6%), Muslim 2.5%, other 3.6%, unspecified 7.9% (2008 est.)
Demographic profileBurundi is a densely populated country with a high population growth rate, factors that combined with land scarcity and poverty place a large share of its population at risk of food insecurity. About 90% of the population relies on subsistence agriculture. Subdivision of land to sons, and redistribution to returning refugees, results in smaller, overworked, and less productive plots. Food shortages, poverty, and a lack of clean water contribute to a 60% chronic malnutrition rate among children. A lack of reproductive health services has prevented a significant reduction in Burundi’s maternal mortality and fertility rates, which are both among the world’s highest. With two-thirds of its population under the age of 25 and a birth rate of about 6 children per woman, Burundi’s population will continue to expand rapidly for decades to come, putting additional strain on a poor country. Historically, migration flows into and out of Burundi have consisted overwhelmingly of refugees from violent conflicts. In the last decade, more than a half million Burundian refugees returned home from neighboring countries, mainly Tanzania. Reintegrating the returnees has been problematic due to their prolonged time in exile, land scarcity, poor infrastructure, poverty, and unemployment. Repatriates and existing residents (including internally displaced persons) compete for limited land and other resources. To further complicate matters, international aid organizations reduced their assistance because they no longer classified Burundi as a post-conflict country. Conditions have deteriorated since renewed violence erupted in April 2015, causing another outpouring of refugees. In addition to refugee out-migration, Burundi has hosted thousands of refugees from neighboring countries, mostly from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and lesser numbers from Rwanda.
Age structure0-14 years: 45.61% (male 2,545,895/female 2,516,480)
15-24 years: 19.17% (male 1,061,538/female 1,066,581)
25-54 years: 28.71% (male 1,589,506/female 1,597,081)
55-64 years: 3.94% (male 205,538/female 231,317)
65 years and over: 2.57% (male 121,935/female 163,427) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 89.7%
youth dependency ratio: 85%
elderly dependency ratio: 4.7%
potential support ratio: 21.3% (2015 est.)
Median agetotal: 17 years
male: 16.8 years
female: 17.2 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate3.26% (2016 est.)
Birth rate41.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanizationurban population: 12.1% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.66% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - populationBUJUMBURA (capital) 751,000 (2015)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth21.3
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate712 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 60.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 66.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 53.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 60.5 years
male: 58.8 years
female: 62.3 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate6.04 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate21.9% (2010/11)
Health expenditures7.5% of GDP (2014)
Hospital bed density1.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 91.1% of population
rural: 73.8% of population
total: 75.9% of population
urban: 8.9% of population
rural: 26.2% of population
total: 24.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 43.8% of population
rural: 48.6% of population
total: 48% of population
urban: 56.2% of population
rural: 51.4% of population
total: 52% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate1.04% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS77,400 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths3,000 (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate2.1% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight29.1% (2011)
Education expenditures5.4% of GDP (2013)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 85.6%
male: 88.2%
female: 83.1% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 10 years (2013)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 433,187
percentage: 19% (2005 est.)