Angola: People & Society#

note: results from Angola's 2014 national census estimate the country's population to be 25.8 million (July 2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Angolan(s)
adjective: Angolan
Ethnic groupsOvimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%
LanguagesPortuguese 71.2% (official), Umbundu 23%, Kikongo 8.2%, Kimbundu 7.8%, Chokwe 6.5%, Nhaneca 3.4%, Nganguela 3.1%, Fiote 2.4%, Kwanhama 2.3%, Muhumbi 2.1%, Luvale 1%, other 3.6%
note: most widely spoken languages; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2014 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 41.1%, Protestant 38.1%, other 8.6%, none 12.3% (2014 est.)
Demographic profileMore than a decade after the end of Angola’s 27-year civil war, the country still faces a variety of socioeconomic problems, including poverty, high maternal and child mortality, and illiteracy. Despite the country’s rapid post-war economic growth based on oil production, more than 40 percent of Angolans live below the poverty line and unemployment is widespread, especially among the large young-adult population. Only about 70% of the population is literate, and the rate drops to around 60% for women. The youthful population – about 45% are under the age of 15 – is expected to continue growing rapidly with a fertility rate of more 5 children per woman and a low rate of contraceptive use. Fewer than half of women deliver their babies with the assistance of trained health care personnel, which contributes to Angola’s high maternal mortality rate. Of the estimated 550,000 Angolans who fled their homeland during its civil war, most have returned home since 2002. In 2012, the UN assessed that conditions in Angola had been stable for several years and invoked a cessation of refugee status for Angolans. Following the cessation clause, some of those still in exile returned home voluntarily through UN repatriation programs, and others integrated into host countries. As of August 2014, about 73,000 Angolans were still living in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zambia, Namibia, the Republic of the Congo, and other countries.
Age structure0-14 years: 42.72% (male 4,394,206/female 4,223,246)
15-24 years: 20.72% (male 2,127,140/female 2,053,363)
25-54 years: 29.6% (male 3,013,561/female 2,956,547)
55-64 years: 3.97% (male 388,314/female 413,347)
65 years and over: 2.99% (male 278,853/female 323,755) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 99.9%
youth dependency ratio: 95.2%
elderly dependency ratio: 4.6%
potential support ratio: 21.6% (2015 est.)
Median agetotal: 18.2 years
male: 18 years
female: 18.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.72% (2016 est.)
Birth rate38.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate11.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanizationurban population: 44% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.97% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - populationLUANDA (capital) 5.506 million; Huambo 1.269 million (2015)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth19.4
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
Maternal mortality rate477 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 76.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 80.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 72.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 56 years
male: 54.8 years
female: 57.2 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate5.31 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate17.7% (2008/09)
Health expenditures3.3% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.17 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 75.4% of population
rural: 28.2% of population
total: 49% of population
urban: 24.6% of population
rural: 71.8% of population
total: 51% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 88.6% of population
rural: 22.5% of population
total: 51.6% of population
urban: 11.4% of population
rural: 77.5% of population
total: 48.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate2.17% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS315,400 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths11,900 (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate8.5% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight15.6% (2007)
Education expenditures3.5% of GDP (2010)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.1%
male: 82%
female: 60.7% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 10 years
male: 13 years
female: 8 years (2011)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 832,895
percentage: 24% (2001 est.)