Algeria: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
conventional short form: Algeria
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha'biyah
local short form: Al Jaza'ir
etymology: the country name derives from the capital city of Algiers
Government typepresidential republic
CapitalAlgiers Algiers
geographic coordinates: 36 45 N, 3 03 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanrasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen
Independence5 July 1962 (from France)
National holidayRevolution Day, 1 November (1954)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest approved by referendum 23 February 1989; amended several times, last in 2016 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of French civil law and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials including several Supreme Court justices
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the mother must be a citizen of Algeria
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Abdelmalek SELLAL (since 28 April 2014)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds if needed for a 5-year term (2-term limit reinstated by constitutional amendment in February 2016); election last held on 17 April 2014 (next to be held in April 2019); prime minister nominated by the president from the majority party in Parliament
election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA reelected president for a fourth term; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (FLN) 81.5%, Ali BENFLIS (FLN) 12.2%, Abdelaziz BELAID (Future Front) 3.4%, other 2.9%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament consists of the Council of the Nation (upper house with 144 seats; one-third of members appointed by the president, two-thirds indirectly elected by simple majority vote by an electoral college composed of local council members; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) and the National People's Assembly (lower house with 462 seats including 8 seats for Algerians living abroad); members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: Council of the Nation - last held on 29 December 2015 (next to be held in December 2018); National People's Assembly - last held on 10 May 2012 (next to be held on 17 May 2017)
election results: Council of the Nation - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; National People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FLN 208, RND 68, AAV 49, FFS 27, PT 24, FNA 9, El Adala 8, MPA 7, PFJ 5, FC 4, PNSD 4, other 31, independent 18
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 150 judges organized into 4 divisions: civil and commercial; social security and labor; criminal; and administrative; Constitutional Council (consists of 12 members including the court chairman and deputy chairman); note - Algeria's judicial system does not include sharia courts
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the High Council of Magistracy, an administrative body presided over by the president of the republic, and includes the republic vice-president and several members; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Council members - 4 appointed by the president of the republic, 2 each by the 2 houses of Parliament, 2 by the Supreme Court, and 2 by the Council of State; Council president and members appointed for single 6-year terms with half the membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: appellate or wilaya courts; first instance or daira tribunals
Political parties and leadersAlgerian National Front or FNA (Moussa TOUATI)
Algerian Popular Movement or MPA (Amara BENYOUNES)
Algerian Rally or RA (Ali ZAGHDOUD)
Algeria's Hope Rally or TAJ (Amar GHOUL)
Dignity or El Karama (Mohamed BENHAMOU)
Ennour El Djazairi Party (Algerian Radiance Party) or PED (Badreddine BELBAZ)
Front for Change or FC (Abdelmadjid MENASRA)
Front for Justice and Development or El Adala (Abdallah DJABALLAH)
Future Front or El Mostakbel (Abdelaziz BELAID)
Green Algeria Alliance or AAV (includes Islah, Ennahda Movement, and MSP)
Islamic Renaissance Movement or Ennahda Movement (Mohamed DOUIBI)
Movement for National Reform or Islah (Djilali GHOUINI)
Movement of Society for Peace or MSP (Abderrazak MOKRI)
National Democratic Rally (Rassemblement National Democratique) or RND (Ahmed OUYAHIA)
National Front for Social Justice or FNJS (Khaled BOUNEDJEMA)
National Liberation Front or FLN (Djamel OULD ABBES)
National Party for Solidarity and Development or PNSD
National Reform Movement or Islah (Djahid YOUNSI)
National Republican Alliance
New Dawn Party or PFJ
New Generation or Jil Jadid (Soufiane DJILALI)
Oath of 1954 or Ahd 54 (Ali Fawzi REBAINE)
Party of Justice and Liberty (Mohammed SAID)
Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD (Mohcine BELABBAS)
Socialist Forces Front or FFS (Mustafa BOUCHACHI)
Union of Democratic and Social Forces or UFDS (Noureddine BAHBOUH)
Vanguard of Freedoms (Ali BENFLIS)
Youth Party or PJ (Hamana BOUCHARMA)
Workers Party or PT (Louisa HANOUNE)
note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted in March 1997
Political pressure groups and leadersAlgerian League for the Defense of Human Rights or LADDH (Noureddine BENISSAD)
SOS Disparus (Nacera DUTOUR)
Youth Action Rally or RAJ
International organization participationABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BIS, CAEU, CD, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Madjid BOUGUERRA (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (1) (202) 265-2800
FAX: (1) (202) 986-5906
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Joan A. POLASCHIK (since 22 September 2014)
embassy: 05 Chemin Cheikh Bachir, El Ibrahimi, El-Biar 16030 Algiers
mailing address: B. P. 408, Alger-Gare, 16030 Algiers
telephone: (213) (0) 770-08-2000
FAX: (213) (0) 770-08-2064
Flag descriptiontwo equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white; a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent centered over the two-color boundary; the colors represent Islam (green), purity and peace (white), and liberty (red); the crescent and star are also Islamic symbols, but the crescent is more closed than those of other Muslim countries because Algerians believe the long crescent horns bring happiness
National symbol(s)star and crescent, fennec fox; national colors: green, white, red
National anthemname: "Kassaman" (We Pledge)
lyrics/music: Mufdi ZAKARIAH/Mohamed FAWZI

note: adopted 1962; ZAKARIAH wrote "Kassaman" as a poem while imprisoned in Algiers by French colonial forces